Snus in pregnancy and infant birth size: a mother–child birth cohort study
Kreyberg, Ina; Hilde, Katarina; Bains, Karen Eline Stensby; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Granum, Berit; Haugen, Guttorm; Hedlin, Gunilla; Jonassen, Christine M; Nordhagen, Live Solveig; Nordlund, Björn; Rueegg, Corina Silvia; Sjøborg, Katrine Dønvold; Skjerven, Håvard Ove; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Vettukattil, Riyas; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionERJ Open Research. 2019, 5 (4), 1-10. 10.1183/23120541.00255-2019
Rationale: While recent studies show that maternal use of snus during pregnancy is increasing, the potential effects on infant birth size is less investigated, with conflicting results. Objectives: We aimed to determine if maternal use of snus during pregnancy influences the infant anthropometric and proportional size measures at birth. Methods: In 2313 mother–child pairs from the population-based, mother–child birth cohort PreventADALL (Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and ALLergies) in Norway and Sweden, we assessed nicotine exposure by electronic questionnaire(s) at 18 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, and anthropometric measurements at birth. Associations between snus exposure and birth size outcomes were analysed by general linear regression. Results: Birthweight was not significantly different in infants exposed to snus in general, and up to 18 weeks of pregnancy in particular, when adjusting for relevant confounders including maternal age, gestational age at birth, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, fetal sex and maternal gestational weight gain up to 18 weeks. We found no significant effect of snus use on the other anthropometric or proportional size measures in multivariable linear regression models. Most women stopped snus use in early pregnancy. Conclusion: Exposure to snus use in early pregnancy, with most women stopping when knowing about their pregnancy, was not associated with birth size. We were unable to conclude on effects of continued snus use during pregnancy because of lack of exposure in our cohort.